SCIENTIFIC BASES ESTABLISHMENT OF HISTORICAL LOCAL STUDY IN UKRAINE (THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH – THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY)
Historical Local Study in Ukraine has deep roots and rich traditions and plays a prominent part in historical science system. Under current conditions of national consciousness rise and strengthening of attention to own history and culture, Local Study researches gain particular importance. Due to the explorations of native land the accumulation of factual material for historical science takes place. Moreover, the feeling of patriotism is developed. In the course of the research it was revealed that scientific legitimation of Historical Local Study in Ukraine in 19th century took place in context of Ukrainian history distinctiveness recognition. Though, such right to distinctiveness contradicted monocratic ideas of Russian historiography. In those times the guiding historic concept in Russian Empire was dynastic. The main research object was represented by the history of government of monarchs, who headed single nation – Russian. Key historical mission of Russian governors was declared as “accumulation of Russian lands”. In soviet period this historical concept was modified into the theory of “the three brother nations” (“a triune Russian nation”) and in present days – into “Russian World” idea. Grounding of Historical Local Study scientific bases in the 19th century was indissolubly related to the collapse of the imperial concept of history. This was greatly contributed by the pleiad of eminent Ukrainian scientists, among which the works of M. Kostomarov, O. Lazarevskyi and V. Antonovich deserve the greatest credit. Thus, M. Kostomarov came out from the perspective of recognition in all the nations, including Ukrainian, of their peculiar “federative” traits which require particular investigation. Essential contribution into the establishment of Historical Local Study bases in Ukraine was made by O. Lazarevskyi. Subject matter of his researches, based on wide range of documentary sources, was connected to the study of socioeconomic relations in the Left-bank Ukraine. The importance of local studies performed by the scientist lied in substantial resource materials, which characterized socioeconomic conditions prevailing in the Ukrainian lands. Not least important are a number of his methodological ideas. V. Antonovich, as well as his predecessors, grounded the right of Ukrainians to their own history, proving that they are a full-fledged nation, which is fundamentally different from its neighbours. His great achievement in the field of Historical Local Study was creation of his own scientific school. The scientist’s followers came out as organizers and active members of different forms of Local Studies. Such prominent Ukrainian historians as M. Hrushevsky and D. Bagaliy were descendants of Antonovich’s Kiev Documentalist School. Consequently, owing to the activity of Ukrainian researchers in the second half of the 19th century scientific bases of Historical Local Study were established as a result of the concept of Ukrainian history distinctive character and antecedence of the folk masses role in the historical process.
BUGRII V.S. – Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenko, Dr (Pedagogy), Assistant Professor (Ukraine).