LEGISLATIVE REGULATION AND PRACTICE OF APPLYING FULL POWERS THE VOLHYNIAN TREASURY CHAMBER TOWARDS THE JEWS IN 1796-1860-ies
Specific features of Volhynian Treasury Chamber’s activities are poorly studied in scientific literature. In recent years, historians pay more attention to the Volhynian Governorate’s features of management. The results of their researches help to understand the historical processes better in the region. Many historians understand the Treasury Chamber as an institution of the financial management. In this article, we demonstrated that the Treasury Chamber had broader functions. The subject of our study is the authorities of Volhynian Treasury Chamber towards Jews in 1796-1860’s. In this article we displayed the results of Vasyl Orlyk’s, Mykola Barmak’s, Oleksandr Golovko’s and others’ studies. The most important sources of our research were the legislation of the Russian Empire and archival documents. At the end of the XVIII century the Russian Empire expanded its western border. Then Russian system of governance began a gradual strengthening in the captured regions. After the partition of Poland many Jews became subordinates of the Russian Empire. The Russian legislation regarding the Jews was often restrictive and discriminatory. It made a negative impact on the quality of the local authorities’ work. The Treasury Chamber was an instrument of the imperial power. It executed tax, control, census and economic functions. It controlled the migration of Jews. The Volhynian Treasury Chamber undertook great efforts towards the transfer of the Jews into the category of agriculturists. Often the Jews shied away from population census and levy of troops. A problem arose in the area of taxation because of the total mass’ poverty which had been born in the Jewish society. Volhynian Governorate had an external border. Many Jews were engaged in the contraband trade. In addition to regular duties the Volhynian Treasury Chamber solved numerous integration and assimilation problems. The government policy was not conducive to some law-abiding representatives among the Jewish ethnic group. This made some additional problems for Volhynian Treasury Chamber in questions such as: tax collection, population census, levy of recruits, regulating the manufacturing and the sale of alcoholic beverages. The Russian government and the Jews created a vicious circle of problems, which has made an impact on their relationship. We consider that our research will expand the scientific understanding about the functions of the Volhynian Treasury Chamber and the regulation of the Jewish life.
SHEVCHUK B.L. – Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko, Assistant of the Department (Ukraine).