Reformation and tolerance: common ground


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The article analyzes the originsand evolution of the phenomenon of tolerance during the 16th-17th centuries, although tolerance category is considered in the terms of faith. In the specific examples described the main manifestations of tolerance in terms of interindividual, national and international level. The opinions of U. Zwingli, M. Luther, J. Brenz, H. Denck, C. Schwenkfeld, and J. Locke on faith tolerance on issues of freedom of conscience and religion are considered. It is noted that the use of the term “tolerance” in the era of the European Reformation is quite conventional. Although the origin of faith tolerance began in the 16th-17th centuries, first on personal levels (disputes between M. Luther and U. Zwingli) and under influence of political and pragmatic determinants (in works of J. Brenz), on state level (Edict of Nantes) and interstate level (Westphalian peace). There are ideological and desire to understand principle of faith tolerance (H. Denck and C. Schwenkfeld) and theoretically justify the ego as a response to challenges of that time in terms of religious wars (J. Locke). Modern society has created the conditions for the weakening of the borders between countries and the creation of international organizations (EU, the Visegrad group, GUAM) due to the processes of globalization, integration, informatization and so on. However, contrary to expectations, the world has not become conflictless. Indication of this are the numerous ethnic, religious, economic, territorial problems, both international and interpersonal character. Therefore the first priority of mankind is to develop principles and meanings, necessary not only for free development, but also for overall survival. The vital logic requires the development imperatives of nonviolence, the strategy of tolerating other people’s values, religious views and cultures, the idea of understanding and dialogue, the search for mutually acceptable compromises. In this regard, the question arises of the phenomenon of tolerance and its role in ethical human behavior and peaceful coexistence of representatives of different countries, nations, religions. Because tolerance to others ideas, customs, beliefs, feelings and even lifestyle is a prerequisite for the stability and cohesion of societies. Expansion of the influence of category of tolerance values in the historical context of philosophical and political thought 16th-17th centuries, first of all, due to the need to find effective possible a search for the best ways to reduce the negative influence of inter-religious conflicts in contemporary European society.

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tolerance, Reformation, Eucharist, freedom of conscience, M. Luther, U. Zwingli, J. Brenz, Edict of Nantes, H. Denck, C. Schwenkfeld, J. Locke.[/restab]

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