Causes and consequences of conflict situations in the environment of underground Karpats’kyi krai (the Carpathian area of the OUN) (1945-1952)


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In the article on the basis of unknown and little-known documents the problem of occurrence of conflict situations in the nationalist structures of the OUN’s Carpathian area in 1945-1954 is examined. Today, when the study of the history of Ukrainian Liberation Movement approaches the qualitatively new level, it is necessary to disclose the problems which still remain either little or not at all investigated. It is to such problems that the topic of the occurrence of conflict situations in the environment of the nationalist underground belongs. By using compromising situations that provoked conflicts, the Soviet punitive bodies intended to introduce contentions, misunderstanding and mutual enmity into the Ukrainian underground. Therefore, such researches have not only an important scientific value, but a social and political value as well. The purpose of the article is to objectively and impartially disclose the content and basic types of conflict situations within the environment of the underground of the OUN’s Carpathian area (Karpats’kyi krai). It also aims to show the consequences which the nationalist camp suffered because of internal oppositions and how the Soviet punitive bodies made use of them. It is shown that the conflict situations in the underground were caused both by the insurgents themselves and by the repressive-punitive bodies who generated them by means of purposeful compromising actions. These conflict situations differed according to reasons, content and consequences. The disputes between leaders of different levels, whose ambition did not promote the productive activity of OUN and UPA are disclosed. At the same time, when the secret service came to know about any such opposition they made use of it with the purpose to enervate the Ukrainian underground. The OUN’s members were people of various age, character, and outlook. They often lived for months within a common closed space – a hiding-place
(“kryivka”), where they shared everyday duties, built mutual relations and so on. It is
established that despite severe and accurately set rules of organizational relations within the underground, as well as within any other social group, quite often there happened conflict situations. In the research they are allocated according to the following types: 1) personal hostility between separate members of the Organization; 2) side-by-side activity of representatives of different generations; 3) struggle for power in the Organization; 4) conflicts among representatives of different ethnographic groups (natives of Bukovyna, Galicia, the Dnieper Ukraine, etc.); 5) fits of ambition and unwillingness to adhere to the Organization’s statute; 6) misunderstandings between heads of UPA’s departments and local leaders; 7) strategic and tactical divergences; 8) conflicts through women. In the article it is proved that any opposition learnt about by the secret service was used by it for the purpose of enfeebling the ungunderground. In the struggle against Ukrainian liberation movement the repressive-punitive bodies relied not only on military force, but also used various, on occasion even “exquisite” means. It is underlined that the compromising activity of the secret service is a wide problem, which still demands a separate complex research.

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Karpats’kyi krai (the Carpathian area of the OUN), conflicts, OUN, UPA, repressive-punitive bodies.[/restab]

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