The China in the international relations of the Russian Empire in the 90’s XIX – early XX century: colonial project “Zheltorossia”
MYKOLA O. KLOCHKO, ANATOLIY V. GONCHARENKO.
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In the early 90’s of XIX century Russia activates its colonial policy in the Far East, shifting its mainstream from border issues and developing trade relations towards economic and political expansion in China, as well as obtaining extraterritorial rights and various concessions. In the 90’s XIX – early XX architects of Russia’s international policy perceived Manchuria as the “Zheltorossiia”, which was to be seized (annexed). The idea of “Zheltorossiia” stirred up the minds of leading Russian state and military figures in the 1990s ХІХ century, who hoped that “Zheltorossiia” would become an adequate response to the “yellow expansion”. The Moscow Treaty of 1896 between the Russian and the Qing Empires, authorizing the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railwaythrough Manchuria, the seizure of Port Arthur and Dalniy by Russia, without paying rent of the Liaodong Peninsula and these ports in accordance with the Russian-Chinese convention of 1898 – these foreign policy actions were to promote the implementation of the project “Zheltorossiia”. Taking advantage of the uprising of the “boxers” in the Qing state in 1900, Russia occupied the territory of Manchuria and refused to withdraw its forces from this region. In consequence of this, St. Petersburg in the early XX century was in the Far East one on one in the confrontation with Japan and other former allies. However, the colonial project “Zheltorossiia”, whose goal was to strengthen the position of the Russian Empire in China, the capture of Manchuria, and in the perspective of Mongolia and Korea, has not been fully implemented. As a result of the defeat in the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905 according to the conditions of the Portsmouth Peace Treaty of 1905, Russia ceded Japan the right to the Liaodong Peninsula with Port Arthur and Dalniy, and also gave the southern branch of the CER The internal political crisis and the foreign policy consequences of the war with Japan forced the Russian leadership to abandon ambitious plans in the Far East, as well as further implementation of the “Zheltorossiia” project and to direct the main vector of foreign policy to the West. Analyzing the colonial policy of the Russian Empire in China in the 90’s XIX – early XX in the context of the implementation of the project “Zheltorossiia” it should be noted that its methods and forms remain unchanged for centuries. Russia’s traditional expansionist policy, which, regardless of the form in which this state exists (the Russian Empire – USSR – Russian Federation), in relation to neighboring countries, although it has certain features, allows us to outline its common features. The Qing Empires at the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries was a sort of “laboratory”, where, taking into account local specifics and realities, the model of the expansionist foreign policy course of Russian state was being worked out, which at the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX was transformed into the “Russian World” (“Pax Russica”), as well as new forms and methods of neocolonial hegemony.[/restab]
the Russian Empire, China, international relations, colonial expansion, Manchuria, “Zheltorossiia”.[/restab]
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