Criticism of Russia’s opposotion parties in the works of I. Hurliand (N.Vasilev)


[restabs text=”More” tabcolor=”#dd9933″ tabheadcolor=”#1e73be”]
[restab title=”ABSTRACT” active=”active”]

The beginning of the 20th century was marked for Russian empire with the growth of systemic crisis, conflict between society and government was increasingly taking confrontation character. Such deterioration of the situation helped to enter the political arena in the country to parties that were opposition to the regime. It is possible to assert that modern Russia, having essentially authoritarian mode of rule in a great deal repeats history of the lost empire. That is why especially valuable at the modern stage is research of cooperation of ruling parties with opposition in the process of social and political struggle in the imperial period. Great interest on this topic is presented by works of direct participants and witnesses of those events: S. Kryzhanovskyi, P. Miliukov, P. Stolypin, I. Hurliand. The most famous scholars of the Soviet period are M. Pokrovskyi, A. Avrekha, V. Bovykina. In the post-Soviet period more often appeared monographic works of D. Aronov, L. Baltovskyi, O. Yehorov and others. At the beginning of 20th century the autocratic power in the empire was interpreted by conservatives, as the main condition of existence of the legal state. Any changes and transformations were ignored by the mode, and more often, leaders of opposition were hunted down and arrests as a result. The periodicals, relatively free universities and counties that were released from hard censorial guardianship became refuge of liberalism. Some people were attracted to liberalism as the idea; others considered it as a tool for modernization of country. The most fundamental supporters of it were members of The Constitutional Democratic Party (so-called “Cadets”). It is of importance to note that the criticism (constructive, and often simply creation of negative image of opponent) was a tool of influence of both monarchists and liberals. Studying the press of that time it seems that the pages of periodicals were battlefield for representatives of different parties and Duma groups. One of directions of governmental battle with the opposition parties of empire were journalistic works of prominent representatives of the right-wing. The most common were the works of a conservative publicist I. Hurliand who actively criticized the opposition parties. Illia Hurliand, an editor of semiofficial newspaper «Russia», being a sincere monarchist from the one hand, and a careerist and devoted assistant of P. Stolypin, on the other hand, attracted all the opportunities and contacts for a permanent massive onslaught on the opposition. I. Hurliand is one of the few monarchists who not simply wrote the critical articles about the opposition and their leaders. To compile a more complete image of “Cadet-liberals”, he tried to understand the logic of action of The People’s Freedom Party, investigated the performance of their leaders in the Duma, and analyzed articles in the opposition press. All of it, and of course, journalistic talent allowed him so vividly and emotionally light up major weaknesses of opponents in the brochures, exposing them from the worst angle, thereby creating necessary for the government the character of political opponent.[/restab]

[restab title=”KEYWORDS“]

empire, autocracy, liberalism, conservatives, monarchists, republic, revolution, opposition.[/restab]

[restab title=”FULL TEXT“]DOWNLOAD.[/restab][/restabs]