The Reorganization of Education in Drohobych Land in 1939-1944: a Comparative Analysis of Soviet and German Practices
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[restab title=”ABSTRACT” active=”active”]
In the article the policy of Hitlerite and Stalin regimes concerning the reorganisation of education on the lands of Drohobych region of the Ukr.SSR in 1939-1944. The topicality of the theme is caused by an increase of the attention of scientists to the comparative researches on the totalitarian regimes of the ХХ century. In particular, it is – as far as the author’s belief can make out – most effective in the application to narrow territorial and time measurements. Under such circumstances it gives the chance to in more details and contextually more fully to analyze concrete mechanisms of functioning of totalitarian regimes in different spheres of public life, particularly – in education. The comparative analysis done has captured the next aspects: management of education, a network of schools, pedagogical cadres, the student’s contingent, professional and higher education, education of adults and the course system of training, the content of education and training. It has been found out that the Nazi educational policy was more destructive in the institutional and personal measurements. Especially, the school network was reduced, almost all secondary schools and the only higher educational institution, namely, Drohobych Teachers’ Training Institute were liquidated, the number of teachers and pupils decreased, and the material maintenance of teachers also considerably worsened. At the same time, the German education authorities had much less possibilities for the controlling functions, than a widely developed Soviet administrative network. Hence, in the years of the Nazi occupation the public access to certain links of education grew, first of all, to preschool centres and after-school establishments. Among the positive sides of education of the Soviet period the author observes a substantially grown number of the Ukrainian language schools and attraction of almost all the children to school education process, while in the Nazi period a wide development of professional schooling is to be taken into reflexion. The author underlines, that there was no catastrophic fall in the education system even in the hard time of the Hitlerite occupation, and the local public, – both Ukrainian and Polish, – executed all possible efforts (certainly, within the measures defined by the Nazis) for the preservation of the national educational traditions.
comparative analysis, education system, totalitarian regime, Drohobych region, 1939-1944. [/restab]
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