Coverage of the primary education development in 1941–1943 by local press of the Military Command Zone.

Olitskyi V.O.



Abstract.  The aim of the study  is to reveal the coverage of forming and developing of primary education in the zone of military command by the local press.  The methodology  is based on the use of general scientific and special-historical research methods, including problem and chronological, comparative-historical, typological, etc.  Scientific novelty.  For the first time in modern Ukrainian historiography, the local press of the military command zone of the Nazi occupation period became the object of study with the focus on primary education. The classification of local press publications on establishing and developing primary education in the military command zone was proposed. Conclusions.  Materials of the local press are an important source for researching the restoration and development of primary education in the zone of military command. Functioning the local newspapers was due to the support of the occupying power, the press was seen as one of the elements of propaganda. This affected the content of periodicals and the way of presenting information. Due to a number of reasons, including low circulation and delivery problems, propaganda through local periodicals had certain effect only in some regions. A number of newspaper publications revealed the peculiarities of everyday life in the occupied territories, including the re-establishment and development of primary education. Such materials can be divided into several groups: coverage of organizing and features of the educational process; statistic al data, didactic materials; characteristic s of pedagogical staff and their professional development. They were the least exposed to propaganda, their authors were mostly members of local authorities. Publications on primary education concerned the administrative units where newspapers were published, and they did not contain general materials. Some of the publications dealt with specific tasks related to restoring and developing educational institutions, the educational process and the results of their implementation. There is a significant segment of material of the critical nature, mainly in relation to teachers: their appearance, behavior, teaching methods. Such notes were mostly impersonal, while praising information was always personal. Articles on the educational process were more influenced by propaganda and were placed on the front pages.

Кeywords:  World War II, military command zone, primary education, occupation, press, propaganda.